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How Routers Work and Basic Setup

How Routers Work and Basic SetupLearn the basics of how routers work, and how to setup your network securely. Networking 101 Project Layout: Week 1: Routers Explained Week 2: Basic Router setup + Switching Week 3: Wireless Explained + Review + Wireless Setup Week 4: Upgrading Routers + 3 Router Setup Routers vs. Switches Both Routers and Switches look for the most efficient path to route data However, HOW they do it is different Switches work with physical addresses (i.e. MAC addresses) Routers work with network addresses (i.e. IP addresses) Lets get basic: Switches have a table of MAC (Media Access Control) Addresses that let it know where frames should be sent. This works ok for a network of dozens to a few hundred PCs However, once you start having THOUSANDS of nodes, a MAC table doesn work (Theres just too many) Routers: Typically use BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) -- Instead of every device having a table of every device on the Internet, BGP just knows est routes\n-- Every device knows the devices closest to it, and the best way to transit the Internet to get CLOSER to the router that actually has the path to the desired device. The EASIEST way to think of switching & routing is this: -- You use a switch when you are sending/receiving data across your network -- You use a router when you are sending/receiving data BETWEEN networks Home routers are REALLY dumbed-down versions of core routers. (Technically, they e EDGE routers) --- They just need to have enough power and smarts to talk to your ISPs routers. 1. Edge (US) 2. Subscriber Edge (the part of the subscribers network that talks to the edge routers) 3. Border Router (Routers that talk with other border routers ACROSS networks) 4. Core: The Backbone What basic services does a typical Consumer Router offer? 1. NAT 2. DHCP 3. Firewall (Part of the NAT Functionality) 4. Wireless NAT: (Network Address Translation) NAT remaps an IP address in one address space, into a different address space NAT came around because of IPv4 Exhaustion (Way back in the 80s) We USED to all have devices that had REAL addresses, and we were running out. NAT allowed us to greatly expand the lifespan of IPv4 because a network really only needed ONE routable address, and everything else was behind the NAT NAT, DOES have an impact on both the reliability and performance of your connection. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Its a way for a client to obtain all the necessary IP configuration parameters when connecting to a network Before DHCP, we had to input IP config information into each client manually. (AKA Static IP Addressing) DHCP uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and NOT TCP. (TCP requires a handshake and error checking --- UDP is connectionless) Its a multi-part process: 1) Discovery: The client broadcasts (again via UDP) a message, DHCPDISCOVER on the network to the IP address 2) Offer: The DHCP server recieves the broadcasted discovery message. It then reserves and IP address for that client and sends a DHCPOFFER message to the client that contains the clients MAC address // IP Address // Subnet Mask // Lease Duration // Gateway address 3) Request: The client receives the offer and broadcasts back to the server, DHCPREQUEST telling it that it will accept the offered address. 4) Acknowledge: The server receives the DHCPREQUEST from the client and returns a DHCPACK Firewall The ability to turn off services and close ports With NAT on an edge router, the Firewall basically serves two functions: - Manage what ports and services youve turned on (and otherwise keep the ports closed) - Map ports to particular IP addresses in your network. Thank the damn FCC corruption by Trump for ISPs now screwing consumers. Lobbying for bandwidth caps, now loss of privacy, and throttling. Soon separate fees for downloads and uploads. And that 100/month for basic internet is coming in 2018.

Дата: 2019-03-15 Know How

Рейтинг: 4 из 5
Голоса: 2

Комментарии и отзывы: 3

1. FireFly
That's so weird to see this guy wear priest clothing on a topic not even related to it, but i get the "purple cow" theory here, i'll give em points for thinking outside the box.
2. Barbara
NEED HELP Following Trend Micro scan of my devices, my router no longer works except for wireless. The connection has been reset to dsl and I can find no way (WIN 7) to change it.
3. 04
I currently have a combination modem/router from my internet provider.
But I want to upgrade, can I just buy a better router and plug that into my combination modem/router?
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